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Countries and Nationalities -1

Countries and Nationalities -1

 

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Countries and Nationalities - 1

 

 

Hello! In this lesson, we will learn to discuss countries and nationalities. The formation of nationality and language names does not follow any set rules. However there are several groups of nationalities and languages.

It is necessary to memorize these names, and some people find the job easier when they learn the languages and nationalities in groups according to how the words are formed. We will break our study about countries and nationalities into two lessons.

In most cases, thename for a person from a specific country and the adjective describing that country are derived from the country name. Often, the words for the person and the adjective are the same.

One group of names for persons and adjectives is derived from the country names with a suffix  "-an" or   "-ian".  We will first look at a list of: name of a country, a person from the respective country, and an adjective describing the corresponding country. The plural form to discuss the person from these countries adds an "-s" to the singular form. Here are some exemplars of such words:

"Country                                  Person                                  

Adjective

Australia                                  Australian, - s                        

Australian             

Bolivia                                            Bolivian, -s                        

Bolivian

Canada                                            Canadian, -s                        

Canadian

Egypt                                            Egyptian, -s                        

Egyptian

Ethiopia                                  Ethiopian, -s                        Ethiopian

Germany                                  German, -s                        

German

Hungary                                  Hungarian, -s                        

Hungarian

Korea                                            Korean, -s                                  

Korean

Lithuania                                  Lithuanian, -s                        

Lithuanian

Russia                                            Russian              , -s                        

Russian

United States of America              American.-s                        

American or U.S.

Venezuela                                  Venezuelan, -s                        

Venezuelan

Zambia                                            Zambian, -s                        

Zambian

Another very common pattern adds the suffix "-ese" to a form of the name of the country. The plural form of the people from these countries is the same as the singular. Here is a list of exemplars of this common pattern:

"Country                                  Person                                  

Adjective

China                                            Chinese                                  

Chinese

Gabon                                            Gabonese                        

Gabonese

Japan                                            Japanese                        

Japanese

Lebanon                                  Lebanese                        Lebanese

Malta                                            Maltese                        

Maltese

Nepal                                            Nepalese                        

Nepalese

Portugal                                  Portuguese                        

Portuguese

Taiwan                                            Taiwanese                        

Taiwanese

Vietnam                                  Vietnamese                        

Vietnamese"

Another common pattern adds "-ish" to a form of the country name to form the adjective. The name for a person from that country is not the same word as the adjective. The plural forms are shown here. Here is a list of exemplars of that pattern:

"Country                                  Person                                  

Adjective

Denmark                                  Dane, -s                        Danish

England                                  Englishman, Englishwoman              

English
                                           English
Finland                                            Finn, -s                                  

Finnish

Ireland                                  Irishman, Irishwoman                        

Irish
                                           Irish
Sweden                                            Swede, -s                        

Swedish

Turkey                                            Turk, -s                                  

Turkish"

United Kingdom (U.K.)   Briton, -s, Britisher,-s, Irish              British



Now that we have seen examples of various ways in which adjectives names for some people are formed, let us listen to the dialog. In this dialog, David and Jennifer are discussing a group of international visitors who are coming to town.

David: When are we going to meet the international visitors?

Jennifer: There is a reception for the French, Germans, and Chinese tonight.

David: Which ones are coming to our house – the Koreans?

Jennifer: No, the plan changed -- theIrish and Taiwanese are coming our house.

David:  Who is going to the airport to meet the Swedes and Danes?

Jennifer:  Mr. and Mrs. Wilson are meeting them tomorrow.

David: Which language are we going to speak?

Jennifer: English – I think!

Now that we have looked at some of the countries, their people, and adjectives to describe them, let us take a look at the sentences in the dialog.

After David asks when they are going to meet the international visitors, Jennifer replies "There is a reception for the French, Germans, and Chinese tonight.". We see that Jennifer's response contains three different kinds of plurals to discuss the people from these countries. Although the singular for a person from France is either "Frenchman" or "Frenchwoman", when we discuss more than one person from France, we use the plural form "French." The plural form of a "German" is "Germans"., a very predictable form. But the plural of "Chinese" is "Chinese". In this case, we do not know with certainty whether Jennifer is discussing one person from China or more than one person from China.

David asks "Which ones are coming to our house – the Koreans?" we notice that David uses the pronoun "ones" to discuss the international visitors. It is possible for him to use this form because he and Jennifer have been discussing "international visitors", so Jennifer knows the pronoun "ones" refers to "international visitors".

Jennifer responds "No, the plan changed --  the Irish and Taiwanese are coming our house."  The plural form of "Irishman" and Irishwoman" is "Irish", so we are certain that more than one person from Ireland is coming.  However, this sentence is similar to the previous sentence when Jennifer discussed the "Chinese". Since the plural form of "Taiwanese" is the same as the singular form "Taiwanese", we do not know with certainty whether one person from Taiwan or several people from Taiwan are coming to Jennifer's and David's house.

David asks "Who is going to the airport to meet the Swedes and Danes?" In this case, the plural forms of the words "Swede" and "Dane" simply add the suffix "-s" to form the plural. So in this case, we are certain that more than one person from Sweden and more than one person from Denmark will be at the airport.

Finally, When David asks which language they are going to speak, Jennifer replies "English – I think!"

Now that we have heard the dialog and the pronunciation of some of the country names and names of people from those countries, let us listen to the dialog again.

David: When are we going to meet the international visitors?

Jennifer:  There is a reception for the French, Germans, and Chinese tonight.

David: Which ones are coming to our house – the Koreans?

Jennifer: No, the plan changed --  the Irish and Taiwanese are coming our house.

David:  Who is going to the airport to meet the Swedes and Danes?

Jennifer:  Mr. and Mrs. Wilson are meeting them tomorrow.

David: Which language are we going to speak?

Jennifer: English – I think!

Great! Now that we have covered some of the countries and the names of people from those countries, be sure to incorporate these words into your conversations in English.  As David said, "Which language are we going to speak?". And to paraphrase Jennifer's response – "English, we hope!".