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Review Lesson 27

Review Lesson 27


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Review Lesson 27

Hello! We have learned a lot in these last few lessons. Let us take a moment to review what we have learned.

First, we learned to work with several verbs that are irregular in the present tense, which means that some of their forms cannot be predicted exactly. Verbs become irregular through much use, so the most common verbs are also the most irregular verbs, such as “to be”, “to have”, “to do”, “will”. To a certain degree, all the modal verbs - "can, could, will, would, should, may," and "might" - could be considered "irregular", however they are predictable, so we will address them in only a limited way in this lesson.

While most verbs in the simple present tense have two forms that are closely related to each other, the verb "to be" has three simple present tense forms that look different from each other “am”, “is”, and “are”. The verb "to have" has two forms in the simple present tense: "have" and "has". The verb "to do" has two forms in the simple present tense: "do" and "does". The auxiliary verb "will" is irregular inthe simple present tense. Some people use the form "shall" for the pronouns "I" and "we" in the simple present tense. All other pronouns  -- "you, they, he, she, it" singular subjects like "Jennifer" as well as plural subjects like "David and Jennifer" use "will".

Then, we learned to use the preposition “by”, which means near or next to. For example, we might say "David and Jennifer live by a store.". Another common usage of the preposition "by" means: through the medium of. For example, we might say "The international visitors arrived by air.". Another common usage of the preposition "by" is: by means of a vehicle. For example, we might say "David and Jennifer go to work by car.".  Sometimes the preposition "by" means: up to a specific time. For example, Jennifer might say "David will be home by 5:00.". Sometimes the preposition "by' means up to a certain point and past it. For example, "Jennifer and David walk by the store to get to the museum.". Sometimes the preposition "by" is used to describe a task that is accomplished through the work of something or someone. For example, "Jennifer liked the book by Earnest Hemingway.". And sometimes we use the preposition "by" to show increments. For example, we might say "Step by step, we are learning English." We learned not to mistake the preposition "by" for the verb "buy” or the farewell “bye".

Finally, we learned to use the reflexive pronouns. Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and object of a sentence are the same person or thing. The reflexive pronouns are “myself”, “yourself”, “himself”, “herself”, “itself”, “ourselves”,  “yourselves” and “themselves”. We use the reflexive pronouns just the same way that we use other object pronouns. For example, we might say "Jennifer blames herself for losing her ring”, as compared to "Jennifer blames David for losing her ring." When we use the imperative, we use the pronoun "yourself" when we are talking to one person, or "yourselves" when we are talking to more than one person. We would say to one person "Do not cut yourself on the broken glass.". Compare that to what we would say to two or more people: "Do not cut yourselves on the broken glass." We use the expression "by" with a reflexive pronoun to signify that someone does something with no help. For example: The little girl drew this picture by himself."

Great! Now that you have reviewed each of these concepts, you have reinforced the knowledge you have learned thus far.