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Verbs - Irregular Past Tense - 2

Verbs - Irregular Past Tense - 2

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Requirements

 

Irregular Past – 2

 

 

Hello!  In this lesson, we will continue to learn how to use the irregular past tense. As we learned in a previous lesson, the irregular past tenses are the simple past tense. However, they do not have the familiar "-ed" endings as regular simple past tense forms do.

The past tenses of some of the most common verbs are irregular. They have changed through much use. The irregular verbs can be grouped according to the kinds of pronunciation changes that have occurred in their past tenses. We have to memorize the past tenses because there is no sure way of knowing which change has occurred to which verbs. In this lesson, we will concentrate on 5 groups.

One group of verbs has a change of the sound inside the word. We have learned 3 of these verbs. They are "sleep, keep" and "read". The simple past tense of "sleep" is "slept". The simple past tense of "keep" is "kept". The simple past tense of "read" is "read". We notice that the vowel sounds in these words change in the same way in the simple past tense. We see that the spelling of the past tense of "read" looks like the present tense "read". However, the pronunciation is not the same.

Let us take a look at the way we make questions and answers with an example of these verbs. As we learned in a previous lesson, the signal that a question is a simple past question is the auxiliary verb "did". So we might ask "How did you sleep?" which means: (translate: how did you sleep). An example of an answer might be "I slept well.". To answer in the negative, we might answer "I did not sleep well.".

Notice that when we make a negative answer, we use the auxiliary verb "did" and the negative "not". And we do not use the simple past tense form. The same signal that tells us when a question is last tense can also tell us that the answer is past tense – the auxiliary "did" signals past tense in the negative answer as well as in the past tense question. So the only time we need to use a simple past tense form is when the answer is affirmative, for example: "I slept well.", or "I slept badly.". We notice that in both affirmative sentences, the past tense verb itself is in the simple past tense.

Two verbs which have similar irregular past tense forms are "tell" and "sell". The simple past form of "tell" is "told". The simple past form of "sell" is "sold". To give you an example of a question and answer with the verb "sell", we might say "Did Mrs. Smith sell her car?". A possible answer might be "Yes, she sold her car.". A negative answer would be "No she did not sell her car.".   

Two more verbs which make similar changes are "write" and "drive". The past tense form of "write" is "wrote." The past tense form of "drive" is "drove". Both verbs have similar internal spelling changes. An example of a question and answer with an example of this type ofverb might be "Did Jennifer drive to work yesterday?" We might answer "Yes, Jennifer drive to work yesterday." or  "No, Jennifer did not drive to work yesterday." If we wanted to use short answers with these or any of the simple past tense verbs, we would say "Yes, she did," or "No, she did not.".

Two verbs which are similar to each other are the verbs "draw" and "know". The simple past tense of the verb "draw" is "drew.". The simple past tense of the verb "know" is "knew.". We see that the internal spelling changes are similar. An example of a question and answer with the verb "draw" might be "Did the girl draw a picture?". An affirmative answer would be "Yes, the girl drew a picture.". A negative answer would be "No, the girl did not draw a picture." Short answers would be "Yes, she did." And "No, she did not.".

Two other verbs which are similar to each other are the verb "make" and the verb "have.". The simple past tense of "make" is "made". The simple past tense of "have" is "had.". Each verb loses a consonant from its base form when the simple past tense is formed. An example of a question and answer with one of these verbs could be "Did David and Jennifer have breakfast?". The affirmative answer is "Yes, they had breakfast.". The negative answer is "No, they did not have breakfast." The short answers are "Yes, they did." And "No they did not.".

The simple past tense of the verb "hear" is "heard". The internal vowel change is somewhat similar to other internal vowel changes we have seen.  An example of a question and answer with the verb "hear" is  "Did you hear the storm last night?". An affirmative answer is "Yes, I heard the storm.". A negative answer is "No, I did not hear the storm last night.". Short answers are "Yes, I heard it. " and "No I did not hear it.".

In our next lesson, we will hear a dialog using some of these verbs.