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Review Lesson 29

Review Lesson 29

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Review Lesson 29


Hello! We have learned a lot in these last few lessons. Let us take a moment to review what we have learned.

First, we learned to use the perfect present tense, which helps us discuss the past from the viewpoint of the present. It covers a span of time stretching from now backwards into the past.

 

We learned that the present perfect is formed with the conjugated form of the verb "to have" and a participle. The regular participles look the same as the regular simple past tense verbs. The participles end with "-ed".

We learned that when we are talking about a span of time which includes the present time, we must use the perfect present. The use of the present perfect indicates an emotion or an action that continues into the present moment. An example of using the present perfect tense is :"This afternoon there is a picnic. It will probably be a success because Jennifer has baked her great cookies.” The aspect or point of view is the present. As we comment about the situation in the present, we comment on Jennifer having baked the cookies. Basically, we are talking about a span of time which includes the present time.   

Finally, we expanded on our knowledge of the present perfect using irregular participles. We have already learned that the participle may either be regular or irregular and that regular participles look the same as the simple past tense.

As we have already learned, the verb "to be" is an irregular verb. Its participle – "been" is also irregular. An example of the present perfect tense of the irregular verb "to be" is “I have been tired all day.”As we see, the participles are not predictable, but the formation of the present perfect tense is predictable.

There are basically three group of irregular participles. In the first group, the past participle looks exactly the same as the simple past tense. In the second group, the verbs undergo similar vowel changes. In the final group, the participles end with the "n" sound. Some are spelled with a final "e" which has no sound.

Great! Now that you have reviewed each of these concepts, you have reinforced the knowledge you have learned thus far.