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Review Lesson 30

Review Lesson 30

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Review Lesson 30


Hello! We have learned a lot in these last few lessons. Let us take a moment to review what we have learned.

First, we learned to use the preposition “beside”, which means next to. It has both concrete and abstract uses, much like all all prepositions.

 

We use the word "beside" to compare two persons, places, things, or ideas.

 

We learned that we do not need to compare these two items side by side physically; we compare them in our minds. For example, we may say "Beside Mrs. Smith's car, other cars seem small."

 

We sometimes use the word "besides" to mean in addition to, or over and above, or as an adverb which means furthermore or in addition. For example, Jennifer might ask her cousin "What do you like besides swimming?"

 

 

We sometimes use "besides" as an adverb which means furthermore or in addition. We might say "David was tired and hungry after work. Besides, he was angry at Mr. Johnson."

 

Then, we learned to express an indefinite future using the modal verb “might” as well as several adverbs that indicate possibility. We learned that sometimes the modal verb "might" is used in an if-then sentence, like this: "If David has to work late every night, (then) he might look for a different job." In this sentence, it is not definite that David will look for a different job. Both the first and second parts of the sentence are possibilities.

 

Other ways of indicating possibility in English are the adverbs "possibly, probably, maybe," and "perhaps".For example, we might say "I will probably go shopping tomorrow." Another way to express the same meaning is "I might go shopping tomorrow."

 

We learned that the word "probably" is more definite than "possibly, maybe," and "perhaps".

 

Finally, we learned to use the present perfect progressive tense. Similar to the present perfect tense, the present perfect progressive tense covers a span of time stretching from now backwards into the past. It is use for ongoing action that began in the past and continues into the present moment.

 

For example, we may say "David and Jennifer have been living on their apartment for 3 years". This sentence says that David and Jennifer started living in their apartment 3 years ago, and they still live there. The action of living in their apartment has been ongoing for three years. We use the preposition "for" to express the length of time that some action has been persisting.

 

Other similar expressions would be "all morning", "all afternoon, "all evening", "all week", and "all year". We also use the word "since" to express the time when the activity started and to indicate that the activity has persisted in the interim and continues into the present.

 

We also use the present perfect progressive tense with the adverbs "recently" or "lately". For example “I have been feeling tired lately". This sentence says that starting in the recent past and continuing now, the speaker has been feeling tired. Since the present perfect progressive continues into the present, it is possible to insult someone by using it to discuss their appearance or some sensory information about him or her. For example, if you ask a person "Have you been smoking?", the implication is that you can smell smoke on the person, since the effects started in the past and continue into the present.


Great! Now that you have reviewed each of these concepts, you have reinforced the knowledge you have learned thus far.