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Prepositions - With, Without

Prepositions - With, Without

 

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Prepositions – With, without


Hello! In this lesson, we will learn the prepositions "with" and "without". In previous lessons, we have learned the prepositions "in, on, over, under, beside, to, from," and "for".

There are several ways of using the preposition "with". The most common usage means: accompanying. For example, "David is going to the museum with Jennifer." or "Jennifer is going fishing with David.".

Another common usage means: characterized by having. For example. "Mr. Johnson is the older man with white hair." or "Mrs. Johnson is the woman with blue earrings.".

We sometimes use the preposition "with" to indicate by what means we accomplish a task. For example, "I cut the beef with a knife." or "I eat my soup with a spoon.".

A similar use of the preposition "with" means: by use of or for the use of: We might say "The bag is filled with groceries." or "The pillow is stuffed with foam.".  

We sometimes use the preposition "with" to tell the manner in which a task is performed. For example, we might say "The children draw their pictures with care.".

Sometimes the preposition "with" means: against, for example, "The man argues with his boss." or "The girl fights with her brother." or "The students struggle with their homework.".

The preposition "without" means: lacking. For example, we might say: "David goes fishing without Jennifer." or "Jennifer goes to the museum without David.". We might say "Mr. Smith is the man without any hair.", which would mean that all the other men have hair, but Mr. Smith is distinguished by not having hair;  or "Mrs. Smith is the woman without a coat.", which would mean that all the other women have coats, and Mrs. Smith is distinguished by not having one. We might say "I cannot cut beef without a knife." or "I cannot eat soup without a spoon.".

We can use the prepositions "with" and "without" with nouns and pronouns. For example, we might say "Jennifer goes fishing with David, but she doesn't want to go with him.", or "David goes to the museum with Jennifer, but he doesn't want to go with her.".

Now that we understand the prepositions "with" and "without", let us listen to the dialog. In this dialog,       

Jennifer: Should I go to the airport with you?

David: No, the car will be filled with suitcases!

Jennifer: But you do not want to go without me, do you?

David: I do not want to go without you, but I do not want to struggle with the luggage.

Jennifer: I can go to the airport with Mrs. Smith.

David: Is Mrs. Smith the one with the small car?

Jennifer:  No, Mrs. Smith is the one with the huge car.

David: Okay, you should go with her.

Now that we have heard the dialog, let us pay closer attention to the sentences in the dialog.

Jennifer starts the conversation by asking "Should I go to the airport with you?". Jennifer means she might like to accompany David to the airport. Notice that she uses the preposition "with" with the object pronoun "you".

David answers "No, the car will be filled with suitcases!".In this sentence, David means that the car will be full of suitcases; the implication is that there will not be enough space for Jennifer in the car.

Jennifer retorts "But you do not want to go without me, do you?". In this sentence, Jennifer wonders whether David wants to go to the airport alone. We notice that Jennifer uses the preposition "without" with the object pronoun "me".

David answers "I do not want to go without you, but I do not want to struggle with the luggage.". David mirrors Jennifer's statement by saying he does not want to go without her. He uses the preposition "without" with the object pronoun "you", and in his next statement, he says he doesn't want to "struggle with" the luggage. In this expression, the preposition "with" means: against.

Jennifer says "I can go to the airport with Mrs. Smith.". We notice that Jennifer uses the preposition "with" with the name "Mrs. Smith.".As long as another person is not mentioned, the next time Mrs. Smith is discussed, Jennifer and David can use a pronoun to refer to her.

David clarifies by asking "Is Mrs. Smith the one with the small car?". In this case, David is using the preposition "with" to mean: distinguished by.  

Jennifer answers "No, Mrs. Smith is the one with the huge car.". Jennifer uses the preposition "with" in the same way – to mean: distinguished by.

David answers by saying "Okay, you should go with her.". We notice that this time, David uses the preposition "with" with the object pronoun "her". He could have said "Okay, you should go with Mrs. Smith." or "Okay, you should go with the one with the huge car.", since "Mrs. Smith" and "the one with the huge car" refer to the same person – "Mrs. Smith".

Now that we have looked at the sentences in the dialog, let us listen to the dialog again. Listen for the varying uses of the preposition "with" and for the preposition "without".

Jennifer: Should I go to the airport with you?

David: No, the car will be filled with suitcases!

Jennifer: But you do not want to go without me, do you?

David: I do not want to go without you, but I do not want to struggle with the luggage.

Jennifer: I can go to the airport with Mrs. Smith.

David: Is Mrs. Smith the one with the small car?

Jennifer:  No, Mrs. Smith is the one with the huge car.

David: Okay, you should go with her.

Great! You have added the prepositions "with" and "without" to your growing repertoire in English. Use these useful prepositions in your conversation in English – "Speak English with your friends.".