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Review Lesson 32

Review Lesson 32

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Review Lesson 32

Hello! We have learned a lot in these last few lessons. Let us take a moment to review what we have learned.

First, we learned the names of punctuation marks and the basic rules for using them. A “period” or “full stop” is used to signal the end of a sentence or statement. The “question mark”, which is used to ask a question, and the “exclamation point”, which expresses strong emotion, are also used to end a sentence. The “comma” is used in many ways. It is used before a conjunction which joins two clauses, to separate items in a series of three or more words, to separate an introductory phrase from the main part of the sentence, to set off interrupts, to separate adjectives as well as the day of the month from the year and names of cities from states. We use the “comma” to introduce a quotation, as well as between the main part of the sentence and a tag question.

Then, we learned more about punctuation marks. We learned to use the “semicolon” between two sentences when the conjunction is deleted. We use a “semicolon” to separate items in a series when the items themselves contain commas. We learned that the “colon” after a complete sentence which introduces a list of items and after the greeting in a business letter. We learned that the “quotation marks” are used with direction quotations and that periods and commas always go inside the quotation marks. We learned that parentheses are  used to enclose a clarification or an aside. We learned that the “apostrophe” is used in contractions and to show possession. We learned that the “hyphen” is used to spell out numbers between twenty-one and ninety-nine, fractions, and to white two- or three-part words, especially if they would have another meaning without the hyphen. We learned that the “en-dash” is used between items where the word “to” could be used, and that the “em-dash” signifies a change in the train of thought in a sentence.

Then, we learned to form and use contractions. Contractions are shortened forms of some words in which a part of the word has been removed. The part that is removed is replaced with an apostrophe. Contractions are used in normal speech and in informal writing.
We use many contractions of the negative word "not". We also use contractions with the verbs "to be" and "to have". We usually do not use contractions when a form of "to have" is the main verb. We use the contracted form of "to have" when the verb "to have" serves as an auxiliary verb in the sentence.

Finally, we learned to work with the word "so". The word "so" can be used as an adverb, an adjective, a pronoun, an interjection, and as a conjunction. The word "so" is often used as an intensifier. When we use the word "so" in this way, we can say, for example, "I am so happy to meet you. It is often used with another clause which contains the word "that", and it means that the "so" condition causes the "that" condition. When we use this combination of "so" and "that", we could say "The new car is so clean that I do not want to take it out of the garage." We sometimes use the word "so" to mean likewise or correspondingly. For example, we can say "Jennifer likes chocolate, and so does David." Another meaning of "so" is true as reported or stated. For example, when David makes a mistake that Jennifer has warned him about, she might say "I told you so.". It means that she told him what would happen, and her warning came true. A common usage of "so" is as a sentence connector which means "therefore". Using it that way we can say "I have to work late, so I will not be home for supper”.

Great! Now that you have reviewed each of these concepts, you have reinforced the knowledge you have learned thus far.