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Vocabulary Builder - Conjunctive Adverbs

Vocabulary Builder - Conjunctive Adverbs

 

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Conjunctive adverbs


Hello! In this lesson, we will learn to use conjunctive adverbs. A conjunctive adverb is an adverb that connects two clauses. Conjunctive adverbs show cause and effect, sequence, contrast, comparison, or other relationships.

Here are some conjunctive adverbs which show cause and effect: "as a result", "consequently", "so", and "therefore".

Here are some sample sentences which contain these cause-and-effect conjunctive adverbs:

"The little girl ate too many cookies. As a result, she got sick." We could also say "The little girl ate too many cookies; she got sick as a result."

 

"We ran out of gas; consequently, we were late to our friends' wedding."We could also say "We ran out of gas; we were consequently late to our friends' wedding."

 

"James didn't study, so he didn't pass the test."

"David woke up late. Therefore, he was late for work." We could also say "David woke up late; he was therefore late for work."

 

Here are some conjunctive adverbs which show sequence: "again", "next", "subsequently", "then", and "finally".

Here are some examples of sentences which contain these sequence conjunctive adverbs:

"The woman knocked the door; she knocked on the door again."
We could also say "The woman knocked on the door; again, she knocked on the door."

"David got in the car. Next, he fastened his seatbelt."
We could also say "David got in the car. He next fastened his seatbelt." Or

"David got in the car. He fastened his seatbelt next."
"They arrived in St. Louis, Missouri. Subsequently, they rented an apartment there. "

We can also say "They arrived in Chicago. They subsequently rented an apartment there."

"David washed the car. Then he waxed it."
We can also say "David washed the car. He then waxed it."

"Jennifer looked everywhere for her book. Finally, she found it under the sofa."We can also say "Jennifer looked everywhere for her book. She finally found it under the sofa."

The conjunctive adverbs "however" and "nevertheless" show contrast.
Here are some examples of sentences which contain these conjunctive adverbs:

"Jennifer likes to stay up late at night. However, she has to get up early in the morning."

We could also say "Jennifer likes to stay up late at night. She has to get up early in the morning, however."

"David thinks that caffeine is bad for him. Nevertheless, he drinks coffee every morning."

We can also say "David thinks caffeine is bad for him. He nevertheless drinks coffee every morning."

The conjunctive adverb "similarly" shows comparison.
Here is example of a sentence which contains this conjunctive adverb.

"David always works late on Wednesday nights. Similarly, Mr. Smith always works late on Thursday nights."

We could also say "David always works late on Wednesday nights. Mr. Smith similarly works late on Thursday nights."


Now that we have an idea of how to use some of the conjunctive adverbs, let us listen to a dialog.

Jennifer: What happened? The car was fine. Then it stopped!

David: Our tire is in a hole. However, we can push the car out of the hole.

Jennifer: (pushing) We have pushed and pushed. Nevertheless, the car has not moved.

David: Right. The car is not moving, so we should call a tow truck.

Jennifer: Good idea. I will call on my cell. Then we can wait for the tow truck.

Jennifer begins this conversation by saying "What happened? The car was fine. Then it stopped!". We see that she uses the conjunctive adverb "then" to show the passage of time. At first, the car was moving properly, and then it stopped. She could have said "The car was fine. It then stopped.".

David explains what happened to the car. He says "Our tire is in a hole. However, we can push the car out of the hole.". We see that David uses the conjunctive adverb "however" to show contrast. Although the car's tire is in a hole, Jennifer and David can push the car out of the hole. He could have said "Our tire is in a hole. We can, however, push the car out of the hole.".

Jennifer and David try to push the car. Jennifer says "We have pushed and pushed. Nevertheless, the car has not moved.". She uses the conjunctive adverb "nevertheless" to show contrast. Although they have pushed and pushed the car, the car has not moved.

David agrees with her. He says "Right. The car is not moving, so we should call a tow truck.". He uses the conjunctive adverb "so" to show causation. The word "so" cannot move around in a sentence the way the other conjunctive adverbs can. It is always at the head of the clause which is caused by the other clause.

Jennifer is relieved that she will not to have to push the car anymore. She says "Good idea. I will call on my cell. Then we can wait for the tow truck.". She uses the conjunctive adverb "then" to show time sequence. She will call on her cell phone, and then she and David can wait for the tow truck.

Now that you have heard the dialog and understand the usage of the some of the conjunctive adverbs, let us listen to the dialog again. Listen for the relationships between the clauses that are used with conjunctive adverbs.

Jennifer: What happened? The car was fine. Then it stopped!

David: Our tire is in a hole. However, we can push the car out of the hole.

Jennifer: (pushing) We have pushed and pushed. Nevertheless, the car has not moved.

David: Right. The car is not moving, so we should call a tow truck.

Jennifer: Good idea. I will call on my cell. Then we can wait for the tow truck.

Great! Conjunctive adverbs add sophistication and fluidity to your language use. "Practice these words. Then use them!".